After the Eighty Years' War, Luxembourg became a part of the Southern Netherlands, which passed to the Austrian line of the Habsburg dynasty in 1713.
After occupation by Revolutionary France, the 1815 Treaty of Paris transformed Luxembourg into a Grand Duchy in personal union with the Netherlands.
The treaty also resulted in the second partitioning of Luxembourg, the first being in 1658 and a third in 1839.
Although these treaties greatly reduced Luxembourg's territory, the latter established its formal independence, which was confirmed after the Luxembourg Crisis of 1867.
Located in the heart of Europe, positioned between France, Belgium and Germany, the Grand Duchy has taken part in the major European developments.
After a brief period of Burgundian rule, the country passed to the Habsburgs in 1477.
After the collapse of the Napoleonic Empire, the map of Europe was redrawn and divided up among the major powers, meeting at the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
This was when Luxembourg was created as an independent political entity.
The history of Luxembourg consists of the history of the country of Luxembourg and its geographical area.
Although its recorded history can be traced back to Roman times, the history of Luxembourg proper is considered to begin in 963.
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Around 48,000 people are employed directly, and another 30,000 indirectly, by the financial services industry, of which around 23% are of Luxembourg nationality.
The remaining 77% are composed of foreign residents in Luxembourg and cross-border commuters from neighbouring France, Belgium and Germany.
The history of Luxembourg goes back to 963, when Count Sigfried acquired the small fort called Lucilinburhuc in an exchange with St Maximin's Abbey in Trier.
The fort stood on the rocky spur of the Bock, dominating the Alzette valley.