The traditional ascription of the whole book to the prophet Joel was challenged in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by a theory of a three-stage process of composition: 1:1– were from the hand of Joel, and dealt with a contemporary issue; –/3:1– were ascribed to a continuator with an apocalyptic outlook.
One is "CE Marking" which is a compulsory marking found on many products sold within the European Economic Area (EEA). The word "common" simply means that it is based on the most frequently used calendar system: the Gregorian Calendar.
1 - 6) and apocalyptic ("revelatory") material (found mainly in chs. The latter may be defined as symbolic, visionary, prophetic literature, usually composed during oppressive conditions and being chiefly eschatological in theological content.
Joel is part of a group of twelve prophetic books known as the Twelve Minor Prophets.
Its history as part of the Jewish and Christian canons followed that of the entire scroll of the Minor Prophets.
The Masoretic text places Joel between Hosea and Amos (the order inherited by the Tanakh and Old Testament), while the Septuagint order is Hosea–Amos–Micah–Joel–Obadiah–Jonah.
Revelatio and traditio, receiving and handing on, the chain of transmitters, are the central ideas of this understanding of revelation (Berger). 5) plays the decisive role here, as witnessed by the Ethiopic version of the Apocalypse, which belongs in the framework of the Clement literature in which Peter hands on the secret revelation to Clement (on Peter as a recipient of revelation cf. As compared with the Canon, the eschatological functions of Peter are new (Berger, 325).
In its description of heaven and hell the Apocalypse draws on the abundance of ideas from the East which has also left its deposit in the writings of late Jewish Apocalyptic and the mystery religions.
Clement of Alexandria); the reference to the Egyptian worship of animals also points in this direction, in so far as this passage belongs to the original content. Starting from a first rendering into Coptic, the Ethiopic translation probably came into being - as usual - though the medium of Arabic versions. 625): "The significance of the Apocalypse of Peter as an important witness of the Petrine literature is not to be underestimated.The climax of his sovereign rule is described in Revelation: "The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ [i.e., Messiah, �Anointed One'], and he will reign for ever and ever" (rev ;da ;;s).The book is made up primarily of historical narrative (found mainly in chs.We have seen estimates as late as 4 CE and as early as the second century BCE.The fall date is reasonably firm, because the birth of John the Baptizer (a.k.a.In this connection however we must refer above al to the ancient Egyptian Peter tradition (cf. To this extent our Ethiopic text, linguistically not altogether unexceptionable, is only the last in a series, with all the imponderables that entails. Peter is the decisive witness of the resurrection event.Hence he is also deemed worthy of further revelations, which he hands on (in revelation documents) with authority.But objective evidence excludes this hypothesis on several counts: Objective evidence, therefore, appears to exclude the late-date hypothesis and indicates that there is insufficient reason to deny Daniel's authorship.The theological theme of the book is summarized in ; : "The Most High (God) is sovereign over the kingdoms of men." Daniel's visions always show God as triumphant (,26-27;;).The Hebrew text of Joel seems to have suffered little from scribal transmission, but is at a few points supplemented by the Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate versions, or by conjectural emendation.This allegorical interpretation was applied to the church by many church fathers.